Soil Health Heroes

Adam Joyner

Farmer Began Farming by No-tilling and Planting Cover Crops to Improve Soil Health

IMG 3031new 

 IMG 3037newAdam Joyner is our 36th Profiles of Soil Health Heroes. Adam is a full-time farmer operating in Gibson County, Tennessee. His farming operation is made up of eight different farms withIMG 3132new a total acreage of approximately 700 acres. He said that all acres except 80 acres are either in winter cover crops (420 acres) or winter wheat (200 acres). Adam has his degree in Wildlife Management and began farming in 2012. He started farming by taking over a field that had been previously vertical tilled in 2012. His cover crop experience began in 2013, growing both turnips and/or radishes. The brassicas winter-killed, and Adam planted no-till into the cover. Adam never tilled or has not had cover crops in his management other than the field he took over for in 2012. Adam's farming operation consists of corn-wheat and soybean rotation. He farms predominantly Memphis Silt Loam, Providence Silt Loam, and Loring Silt Loam soil types. His slopes are gently sloping to sloping with slopes ranging 2 - 6%. These soils are from loess parent material and are highly erosive. His corn is planted on 30" row spacing while his soybeans are on 15" row spacing. Wheat is drilled. He uses a fluted coulter with a floating roll cleaner, double disk opener on his Kinze planter, and one rubber closing wheel and one spike closing wheel. Adam is considering dropping the spike closing wheel in 2018 and operate with two rubber closing wheels. He said the spike closing wheel had wrapping issues with the cover crop residue.  

Adam takes intensive soil test samples on 2.5 acres grids. Samples are pulled on three-year intervals. Adam applies phosphate (P), Potash (K), and lime according to soil test and by variable rate. He previously was applying 70 units of nitrogen (N) in the form of Urea at planting for corn with a second application of 120 units (granular). Since going to cover crops, he has increased to 90-100 units of N at planting to compensate for the increased carbon from the cover crops. The second N application is side dressed at approximately the V-5 growth stage, with 60-70 units of N. He sees the need to improve N-efficiency and plans to purchase a knife applicator for side dressing of N in the future.

Read more: Adam Joyner

Glenn Hopkins

From 300 Acres to 4,000 Acres, Cover Crops and No-till Change Soil Health in Tipton County, TennesseeIMG 3025new

 IMG 2899new

I visited the Hopkins' Farm on July 13, 2017 along with George Henshaw, NRCS District Conservationist for Lauderdale County, Tennessee and Acting District Conservationist for Tipton County. "Gentleman" would be the word to describe Glenn Hopkins. He and his family are truly hospitable and gracious. I feel bless to visit this family and to write about their accomplishments. Glenn Hopkins is our 35th Profiles of Soil Health Heroes. Glenn's partner and wife is Marcie. Their oldest son is Nathan, 18 years old. Nathan is active working on the farm. He is also active in tractor pulling. Glenn and Marcie also have twin sons who are 13 years old, Mike and Mitch. They assist on the farm. Glenn's parents, Troy and Gail Hopkins also own interest in the farming operation.

Glenn Hopkins is a third-generation farmer from Tipton County, Tennessee. Glenn's grandfather was a cotton ginner, and farmed cattle, cotton, and chickens. He would work the cotton gin in the fall, and the family would farm the cotton. His grandparents began farming as share croppers. Glenn's grandfather died when he was three years old. Glenn shared that he began driving a tractor at age 7. Growing up working on the farm was expected. It also became his hobby along with baseball until he was 10. He farmed until college age. The 1980s were tough for farmers. There were droughts and prices were not that good. Glenn went off to college, but after seeing college was not for him, he went into law enforcement at age 19. He was a deputy sheriff for Tipton County. During this time, Glenn did earn an Associate's degree in law enforcement and was planning to finish a Bachelor's degree in Criminal Justice at Memphis State University. His father had an injury and required surgery in the fall of 1992. Glenn did not go to school that fall. He stayed on the farm and harvested the crops. He married Marcie in 1994 and began contemplating his occupation for the future. He decided that farming was more conducive for his family than law enforcement. Troy offered him a job farming with him, and Glenn became a full-time farmer in 1995.IMG 3026new

Read more: Glenn Hopkins

Jesse Castleman

Seeing the Positive Effects from Cover Crops in Dyer, County

IMG 2743new

Jesse and Danny Castleman farm in Dyer County and reside in Newbern, Tennessee. They farm predominantly hill-lands in the Newbern area. Their soils are mostly Grenada and Loring Silt Loam. Since these soils have fragipans, they tend to be wet when rainfall is plentiful and drought prone when dry. Jesse took over the farming operation from his dad, approximately two years ago. Jesse is our 33rd Profile of Soil Health Heroes. I visited the farming operation on June 7, 2017 along with Adam Willis, NRCS Soil Conservationist, Dyersburg, Josh Richardson, District Conservationist, NRCS for Obion and Lake Counties, Ryan Blackwood, NRCS Soil Conservationist, Dyersburg, Danny Castleman, Josh Phillips, NRCS District Conservationist, Dyersburg, Jesse Castleman, and Landowner, R.C. Owens.

IMG 2745newJesse produces grain crops with a corn and soybean rotation. He and his father began cover crops in 2014, predominantly for erosion control. Most of their fields are 2-5% slopes. The soils are from loess (wind-blown silt). They are highly erosive when left bare and tilled. Jesse and Danny learned a few years ago that no-till was the method to farm due to erosion potential on their soils. As earlier noted, the soils are drought prone when conditions are dry, so additions of SOM are essential for these soils to remain productive. Growing cover crops have added much more active soil organic matter or carbon to their soils. Historically, we have lost over 50% of our soil organic matter (SOM) or carbon. Carbon (C) makes up approximately 58% of SOM; and therefore, the terms will be used interchangeable. Keeping a plant growing is the best way to build or increase SOM. Green plants produce sugars or carbon as a result of photosynthesis. Farmers miss opportunities when they only grow one crop per year for 110 days or less. However, cover crops not only add diversity to a corn and soybean rotation, but also provide more efficiency of intercepting energy flow from the sun. Jesse is doing this by planting multi species cover crops annually. Also, multi species cover crops mimic nature with many species growing during the season instead of just a monoculture crop. The sheer amount of biomass grown in the cash crops and cover crops add significant carbon to the system which in turns feeds the soil biology in terms of quantity and quality due to the diversity. The soil biology provides better soil aggregation and nutrient cycling; thus, the soil health improves.

Read more: Jesse Castleman

Johnny and Will Robinson

Will and Johnny Robinson Making a Difference After First Year of Applying Cover Crops

 IMG 2891new

I had the privilege of visiting "Gentleman Farmers, Robinson Farms" in Carroll County on July 12, 2017. Joining me to meet with Johnny and Will Robinson were Matthew Denton, Area Resource Conservationist, NRCS, Jackson, Tennessee, Lee Harris, and Ethan Pipkin, both Soil Conservationists, NRCS, Huntingdon, Tennessee. Will and Johnny Robinson are our 34th Profiles of Soil Health Heroes.

IMG 2889newThe Robinsons live and farm in Lavinia,Tennessee. Their operation consists of approximately 3,800 acres. They farm about 900 acres in pasture with 250 mamma cows with approximately 250 calves. Their cattle are mostly black Angus. Their 2,900 acres of cropland consist of 2,000 acres of cotton with the remaining acres in corn and soybeans. The Robinsons annually soil test. The local Farmers' Cooperative soil test and apply nutrients and lime by precision application. Generally, the farm is high in phosphorus (P2O5) and potassium (K2O). They split apply nitrogen (N) for corn and cotton. They apply a portion prior to planting with urea and side dress with liquid N using a knife applicator. Johnny said that their pH on the farm ranges from 6.3 - 6.5. The Robinsons plant their cotton on 38" rows, corn on 30" rows, and soybeans on 19" rows. 

Johnny Robinson began experimenting with no-till in 1978. He assisted Tom McCutchen, the former Experiment Station Superintendent at the University of Tennessee Experiment Station in Milan, Tennessee, on building an 8-row Allis Chalmers no-till planter in 1980. We all know that Milan Tennessee Experiment Station became one of the foremost institution on spreading no-till in the south.IMG 2879new

Read more: Johnny and Will Robinson

Danny Powell and Matt Griggs Updates

Updates on Soil Health Hero Number 1, Danny Powell, and Soil Health Hero Number 3, Matt Griggs

The Profiles of Soil Health Heroes are now up to 32. Danny Powell was our first hero and Matt Griggs was the third in Profiles of Soil Health Heroes. Their progression in use of cover crops and managing cover crops have warranted an update on each of them. I had the opportunity to visit Matt Griggs on February 7, 2017 and Danny Powell on May 15, 2017. Below are the updates from each of their operations.

Danny Powell Update                                                                                                       

Danny Powell was our first in the series of Profiles of Soil Health Heroes. I completed the write up in November of 2014 and published it in the spring of 2015. A lot has transpired sinceIMG 1911new IMG 1903newthat first article was written. Danny is in his sixth year of cover crops on one field. He has purchased other fields and now is beginning to plant crops in first year cover crops on new fields that he obtained. Danny farms 2,900 acres. He owns approximately 1,300 acres. All of his owned acres are in cover crops. His crop rotation is corn-winter cover crop mix-soybeans and winter cover crop mix. He recently purchased a 30 feet John Deere 1990 Air-seeded drill. He plants or drills 100% of his cover crops with the drill.

Read more: Danny Powell and Matt Griggs Updates