Seeing the Positive Effects from Cover Crops in Dyer, County
Jesse and Danny Castleman farm in Dyer County and reside in Newbern, Tennessee. They farm predominantly hill-lands in the Newbern area. Their soils are mostly Grenada and Loring Silt Loam. Since these soils have fragipans, they tend to be wet when rainfall is plentiful and drought prone when dry. Jesse took over the farming operation from his dad, approximately two years ago. Jesse is our 33rd Profile of Soil Health Heroes. I visited the farming operation on June 7, 2017 along with Adam Willis, NRCS Soil Conservationist, Dyersburg, Josh Richardson, District Conservationist, NRCS for Obion and Lake Counties, Ryan Blackwood, NRCS Soil Conservationist, Dyersburg, Danny Castleman, Josh Phillips, NRCS District Conservationist, Dyersburg, Jesse Castleman, and Landowner, R.C. Owens.
Jesse produces grain crops with a corn and soybean rotation. He and his father began cover crops in 2014, predominantly for erosion control. Most of their fields are 2-5% slopes. The soils are from loess (wind-blown silt). They are highly erosive when left bare and tilled. Jesse and Danny learned a few years ago that no-till was the method to farm due to erosion potential on their soils. As earlier noted, the soils are drought prone when conditions are dry, so additions of SOM are essential for these soils to remain productive. Growing cover crops have added much more active soil organic matter or carbon to their soils. Historically, we have lost over 50% of our soil organic matter (SOM) or carbon. Carbon (C) makes up approximately 58% of SOM; and therefore, the terms will be used interchangeable. Keeping a plant growing is the best way to build or increase SOM. Green plants produce sugars or carbon as a result of photosynthesis. Farmers miss opportunities when they only grow one crop per year for 110 days or less. However, cover crops not only add diversity to a corn and soybean rotation, but also provide more efficiency of intercepting energy flow from the sun. Jesse is doing this by planting multi species cover crops annually. Also, multi species cover crops mimic nature with many species growing during the season instead of just a monoculture crop. The sheer amount of biomass grown in the cash crops and cover crops add significant carbon to the system which in turns feeds the soil biology in terms of quantity and quality due to the diversity. The soil biology provides better soil aggregation and nutrient cycling; thus, the soil health improves.
Read more: Jesse Castleman
Proper Stocking and Pasture Recovery are the Keys to Improve Health on a Grazing Farm
Our 32nd Profiles of Soil Health Heroes are Charles and Lyn Blankenship. Charles and Lynn farm and live in Altamont, Tennessee. They produced Polled Herefords from the 1970s and 1980s and retired in 2013. They lived in McEwein, Tennessee. The Blankenships moved to Altamont approximately four years ago and purchased this farm. The farm size is approximately 230 acres, and 100 acres in pasture. Charles stated that the property's abundant caves and streams gave the property a feel of a natural park. It is great for hiking and just getting out and enjoying the beauty of the landscape. The soils are from sandstone, and are shallow to sandstone. The slopes range from 4-15%. Charles said their most limiting factor was adequate rainfall.
I asked Charles what made him interested in grazing ecology or the management that he now practices. He said that he is an avid reader. He reads "Stockman Grass Farmer" and other books on intensive grazing. He studied several statistics on intensive grazing versus continuous grazing. The reading encouraged him begin intensive grazing. He contacted Dewitt Simerly, NRCS District Conservationist for Grundy County. He also received guidance from Gregg Brann, NRCS State Grazing Specialist, and Soil Health Specialist for Tennessee. Charles also mentioned seeing a demonstration of a rainfall simulator. The results of seeing good infiltration on well managed intensive grazing with proper rest compared to more run-off from over grazed continuously grazed pasture opened his eyes. They began comparing notes with another Profiles of Soil Health Hero, Jim Malooley. See Soil Health Hero number 14. Off he began on high stocking in small paddocks over short duration.
Read more: Charles and Lynn Blankenship